New York Stock Exchange, United States
Founded in 1792, the New York Stock Exchange has been the world’s largest stock exchange since the end of World War I, when it overtook the London Stock Exchange. It has a market capitalization of $22.9 trillion and about 2,400 listed companies. According to the 2017 data from Gallup, more than 54% Americans had invested in stocks listed at the NYSE. The NYSE alone accounts for roughly 40% of the world’s stock market capitalization.
NASDAQ, United States
The NASDAQ Stock Market was founded in 1971 in New York City. NASDAQ is considered the Mecca of technology companies because many of the world’s largest technology companies such as Apple, Microsoft, Facebook, Amazon, Alphabet, Tesla, Cisco, and others are listed here. As of November 2018, NASDAQ had a market capitalization of $10.8 trillion with an average monthly trading volume of $1.26 trillion.
Tokyo Stock Exchange, Japan
Founded in 1878, the Tokyo Stock Exchange is among the top 10 largest stock exchanges in the world. It has close to 2,300 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of $5.67 trillion. Trading at the Tokyo Stock Exchange was suspended for four years after World War II. It resumed operations in 1949. The TSE’s benchmark index is Nikkei 225, which consists of the largest companies including Toyota, Honda, Suzuki and Sony.
Shanghai Stock Exchange, China
The largest stock exchange in China has a market capitalization of $4.02 trillion. It is a non-profit organization and has more than 1,000 listed companies. Though its origins date back to 1866, it was suspended following the Chinese Revolution in 1949. The Shanghai Exchange in its modern avatar was founded in 1990. Stocks listed at the Shanghai Stock Exchange have ‘A’ shares that trade in local currency and ‘B’ shares that are priced in the US dollar for foreign investors.
Headquartered in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Euronext is a pan-European stock exchange with a presence in France, Belgium, Ireland, and Portugal. It has approximately 1,300 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of $3.92 trillion. Stocks listed at Euronext trade in euros. Its monthly trading volume is about $174 billion.
London Stock Exchange, United Kingdom
The London Stock Exchange was founded in 1698. It has more than 3,000 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of $3.76 trillion. It is owned and operated by the London Stock Exchange Group, which was formed in 2007 following the merger of the LSE with Borsa Italia. The LSE was the world’s largest stock exchange until the end of the First World War, when it lost that title to the New York Stock Exchange. Some of the biggest companies listed at the LSE are British Petroleum, Barclays, and GlaxoSmithKline.
Toronto Stock Exchange, Canada
Owned and operated by TMX Group, the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) has 2,207 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of $2.1 trillion, earning it a place among the world’s top 10 largest stock exchanges. It has an average monthly trade volume of $97 billion. All of Canada’s ‘Big Five’ commercial banks are listed at the Toronto Stock Exchange. It was founded in 1852. Back in 2011, the TMX Group was in talks to merge with the London Stock Exchange, but it couldn’t get the approval of shareholders.